Double fertilization isn’t something that refers to farming or gardening practices. It is the mechanism of certain flowering plants where two male gametes join with a female gametophyte to eventually produce a seed that will germinate.
Here are the pros and cons of double fertilization to consider.
List of the Pros of Double Fertilization
1. It produces a food supply for the seed.
In double fertilization, an embryo is formed within the seed that will eventually produce growth. An endosperm is also formed, which provides a food resource for the growing embryo. Some plants can even use this process as an extra food source should growing conditions be less than favorable when the new plant first emerges.
2. It provides extra protection for the species.
Double fertilization almost guarantees the continuation of a flowering species. Because there are two male gametes, the chances of having them interact with a female gametophyte is much more likely. This adaptation makes it more likely that a produced seed will be able to germinate when the season is right.
3. It conserves energy.
Once the embryo begins to form, the flowering plant is able to conserve energy because of the process of double fertilization. It is not forced to produce food for itself and for its offspring. The supply necessary is found in the seed itself, so the plant can focus on surviving for as long as possible.
4. It allows for rapid seed development.
Because there are two male gametes involved in the reproductive process, the development of the seed occurs with additional speed compared to other forms of reproduction. The endosperm nucleus divides rapidly to form nutrient-rich tissue, which allows the embryo to grow rapidly as well.
List of the Cons of Double Fertilization
There are no clear disadvantages to double fertilization compared to other forms of reproduction for plants.
Double fertilization is clearly an evolutionary advantage that angiosperms have developed over time. It is a fairly recent development as well, which is why it is currently such a superior method compared to other methods. Over time, the double fertilization pros and cons may change, but for now, it is clearly one of the best possible methods to continue a species.